Indian History Notes for SSC CGL-Eminent Personalities

  • Alexander : he was the ruler of Macedonia in Greece. He attacked India in 326 BC and captured upto river Bias.
  • Ajatasatru : Son of Bimbisara. He established the city of Pataliputra.
  • Arien : Greek historian who wrote about Alexander’s Indian invasion.
  • Ashwaghosh : Buddhist monk who initiated Kaniskha to Buddhism wrote Buddha charita, Sutralankar and Sandaranand.
  • AmarSimha : Sanskrit scholar in the court of Chandragupta who wrote Amarakosha.
  •  Aryabhatta : He analysed the reasons for Solar and Lunar eclipses and declared that the Earth is round. Wrote Aryabhattiyam.
  • Bimbisar : Founded the Magadhan Empire or Haryanka dynasty. He was the first influential king of ancient India.
  • Banabhatta : Court poet of Harshavardhana and author of Harsha Charita and Kadambari.
  • Charak : He was an Ayurvedic expert wrote Charak-Samhita and established the Aitereya branch of Ayurvedic medicines.
  • Amoghavarsha : He was a famous Rashtrakuta ruler.
  • Dhanananda : He was a powerful king of Magadha. Alexander did not go forward to invade Magadha only after hearing his reputation.
  • Darius I : The ruler of Iran (Persia) who invaded India in 6th century BC.
  • Gautami Putra Shatakarni : He was the mostfamous Satavahana king in 2nd Century.
  • Harisena : He was the writer of Pryaga Prashasti or Allahabad Pillar Inscription.
  • Kharavel : Ruler of Kalinga in I century AD. The Famous Hathigumbha inscription belonged to him.
  • Kanishka : (I century AD) : Most powerful Kushan king. Started Shaka Era. Organised fourth Buddhist council at Kundalvan near Kashmir.
  • Karikala : Chola ruler who founded the city of Puhar (Kaveri patanam) in I century BC.
  • Kautilya : also known as Vishnugupta or Chanakya. He wrote Arthasasthra, which is compared to ‘The prince’ of Machiavelli.
  • Kalidas : Famous Sanskrit poet who wrote, Raghuvamsa, Kumara Sambhavam, Abhigyana Shakuntalam, Vikramorvashiyam and Malavikagnimitram. He also wroteMeghadootam and Ritusamharam.
  • Kamban : A Tamil poet of 11th century who wrote Ramayan in Tamil.
  • Mihir Bhoja : Famous Prathihara ruler of 9th century.
  • Kalhana – Famous Kashmiri poet and historian.He wrote Raja Tarangini.
  • Marco Polo : Venitian Traveller to India in 13th century.
  • Menander : He came to India as a foreign aggressor in II Century BC. MilindaPanho, a book written by Nagasena, is about him.
  • Nagarjuna : Famous Buddhist monk. He popounded the philosophy known asMadhyamika.
  • Makkali Gosala : Philosopher of 6th Century BC. He was the founder of Ajivika sect.
  • Mihirkula : Huna conqueror defeated by Yashodharma.
  • Skand Gupt : Last mighty Gupta ruler.
  • Shushrut : He was a doctor of Ayurvedic medicine. He started the Dhanwantri branch and was an expert in Plastic Surgery.
  • Pulikeshin II. Most powerful king of Chalukyas of Vatapi who defeated Harshavardhana in North and Mahendravarman of South.
  • Pushya Mitra sunga : He killed the last Mauryan ruler and laid the foundation of Sunga dynasty in 185 BC.
  • Pliny : He was a Roman historian who wrote the Natural History. He wrote about the Mauryas of India.
  • Panini : Sanskrit scholar specially of Grammar. He wrote Ashtadyayi.
  • Varahamihira : He was famous astronomer who wrote Brihat Samhita.
  • Sankaracharya : He was born in Kaladi in Kerala. He propagated Advaita Philosophy.

Six systems of Indian Philosophy

  • Samkya- Sage Kapila
  • Yoga- Patanjali
  • Vaisheshika- Kannada
  • Nyaya- Akshapada (Gautama)
  • Mimamsa- Jaimini

Symbols of Buddha

  • Birth– Lotus and Bull
  • Renunciation-Horse
  • Enlightenment -Bodhitree
  • First Sermon -Dharma Chakra
  • Nirvana (Death)-Foot prints

Famous Eras

  • Vikram Era -58 BC
  • Saka Era – 78 AD
  • Gupta Era- 320 AD
  • Hijra Era -622 AD
  • Kollam Era-825 AD
  • Illahi Era -1583 AD

Historically Important Places

  • Ayodhya- Birth place of Sri Rama (UP)
  • Amber Palace- Rajasthan
  • Aghakhan Palace- Pune (Maharashtra) (Gandhi and Kasturba were kept in prison here)
  • Kedarnath- Holy place of Hindus (Utharanchal)
  • Amarnath- Pilgrim centre (Kashmir)
  • Elephanta caves- Near Mumbai
  • Ellora Caves- Maharashtra – 34 cavetemples (Hindu, Buddha – Jaina)
  • Rajgir- Jain Temple in Bihar
  • Golden Temple- Amritsar – Harmandir Sahib of Sikhs
  • Golgumbus- Bijapur (Karnataka) Tomb of Muhammed Adil Shah
  • Tanjore- Capital of Cholas – Brihadveswara Temple
  • Charminar- Hyderabad (Monument of Plague eradication)
  • Konark Temple- Orissa (Sun Temple)
  • Qutab Minar- Delhi
  • Khajuraho- Near Bhopal (M.P.) 80 temples
  • Mahabalipuram- Centre of Pallava architecture (Tamil Nadu)
  • Kurukshetra- Battle of Mahabarata (in Haryana)
  • TajMahal- Agra (UP) Built by Shah Jahan
  • Sanchi- Buddhist Stupa (Madhya Pradesh)
  • Haridwar- Holy Place of Hindus (Uttaranchal)

Books on Sciences

  • Chandra Vyakaran- Chandragomin
  • Amar Kosh – Amar Singh
  • Niti Shastra – Kamandak
  • Kamasutra – Vatsya yana
  • Panchasiddhantika- Varahamihira
  • Ashtanga Hridaya – Vaghbhatta
  • Hastyaurveda-  Pulkapya
  • Sankhyakarika- Iswarkrishna

Temples and Builders

  • Kailas Temple at Ellora – Krishna I
  • Chunnakesava Temple, Belur- Vishnuvardhana
  • Rathas at Mahabilipuram-  Narashimhavarman I
  • Brihadeswara Temple, Tanjavur– RajaRaja Chola
  • Shore Temple, Mahabalipuram– Narasimha VarmanII
  • Lingaraja Temple, Bhavaneswar – Eastern Gangarubs
  • Karjuraho Temples- Chandellas
  • Rajarajeshwara Temple, Tanjavur- Raja raja I
  • Meenakshi Temple at Madhurai- Nayaka Rulers
  • Shiva Temple at Tanjavur- Raja Raja Chola