Analytical Reasoning (AR) is an important part of SSC CGL, IBPS and other Government exams. This section examines the analytical and logical thinking capabilities of a candidate. To answer these questions, no specialized knowledge is required for any particular field. Each question has a specific situation which needs to be analysed on its merit and the questions are to be answered as per that.
Each question or a group of questions in AR is based on a passage or a particular set of conditions. When answering such questions, it is always better to create a rough sketch of the information given. Let us now look at an example below to understand how to go about answering such questions in competetive exams like SSC CGL, IBPS PO etc.
A particular Mumbai restaurant serves dinner from Tuesday to Sunday. The restaurant is closed on Monday. Five entrees-Indian, Russian, Continental, Chinese and Italian are served each week as per the following conditions or restrictions:
- Indian is served on 3 days of every week, but it is never served on a Friday.
- Continental is served on 3 days of each week, but never on consecutuve days.
- Italian is served on 1 day of each week.
- Chinese is served 5 days of each week.
- Indian and Russian are both served on Saturday and Sunday.
- Not more than 3 different entrees are served on any given day.
Q1) Entrees are identical on which of th following pairs of days of the week?
- Friday and Sunday
- Tuesday and Wednesday
- Saturday and Sunday
- Wednesday and Friday
- Thursday and Friday
Q2) On which days are Indian and Italian both be served?
- Tuesday, Thursday
- Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday
- Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday
- Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday
- Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Saturday
Q3) If Continental is served on Saturday, which one of the statements is TRUE?
- Russian and Continental are both served on Sunday
- Russian and Indian are both served on Tuesday
- Italian and Indian are both served on Thursday
- Chinese and Russian are both served on Saturday
- Italian and Russian are both served on Friday
Q4) From the statements given below, which one gives sufficient information to determine that on which days Indian is served?
- Continental are served on the same day
- Italian and Russian are served on Tuesday
- Chinese is served on Saturday, and Italian is served on Tuesday
- Continental is served on Saturday, and Russian is served on all but one of the 6 days
- Chinese is served on Sunday, and Russian is served on Tuesday and Thursday
Understand the Problem:
Let us organize the data given in the question in the form of a matrix or a checkerboard diagram, as shown below. In this we put a "X" against the entree if it is not served on a particular day.
- Indian is not served on Friday
- Indian and Russian are both served on Saturday and Sunday
Check the above diagram. As per the conditions given, we cannot have more than 3 tick marks per column. So further analysis tells us:
- Continental must be served on Saturday or Sunday, but cannot be done on both days. Why so? If you do so, then this entree must will be served on consecutive days, which contradicts the conditions laid out in the question.
- Chinese must be served on Tuesday to Friday and on Saturday or Sunday, but cannot be done on both days. Why so? If Chinese is served on 5 of the 6 days, then it must be served on at least one of the two weekend days. Now if Chinese were served on both Saturday and Sunday, then on one of these 2 days 4 entrees (Russian, Italian, Indian and Continental) would be served. We have established in the above point that Continental must be served either on a Saturday or a Sunday during the week and not on both days, as it would exceed the limit of 3 entrees per day.
Based on the above analysis, we get the alternatives, as given below:
- Continental food is served on Saturday (but not on Sunday), and Chinese food is served on Saturday (but not on Sunday).
- Continental is served on Sunday (but not on Saturday), and Chinese food is served on Saturday (but not on Sunday).
- Italian cannot be served on either Sunday or Saturday.
Based on above points, the matrix diagram obtained is:
Now let us answer the questions:
Answer 1) The correct answer is (d).
Answer 2) The correct answer is (b).
Answer 3) The correct answer is (e).
Answer 4) The correct answer is (e).